Refractive index and density have been measured at (293,298,303) K for binary mixtures of Cyclohexylmethane + 1, 2-Dimethylbenzene,+ 1, 3- Dimethylbenzene, + 1, 4-Dimethylbenzene over the whole mole fraction range. From these data the excess molar volume, excess molar refraction and excess refractive index were calculated. These quantities are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions.
Title of the study is “effect of continuous and comprehensive evaluation on the academic performance of the students in the primary schools”. Main objective of the study is to find out the effect of CCE on the academic performance of primary school students in subject of Mathematics and to compare the performance of control group and experimental group at time of pretest and posttest in subject of Mathematics. Other objective is to compare the performance of control group and experimental group at the time of pre-test and post test in the subject of Mathematics. Study is experimental in nature. Experimental method was adopted to test the effectiveness of CCE pattern on the academic performance of students by comparing this with traditional method of teaching and learning of mathematics in government schools. Randomized group pretest post test design is used in this study. Sample of 200 students is taken for this study. Any study requires reliable and valid tools to measure the variable under study. Usually standardized tools are used in the study. Researcher could not find any appropriate standardized tool for the present study thus in absence of the standardized tool self made questionnaire is used by the researcher for the collection of the data. Reliability and validity is determined by the researcher. This paper includes detail of the process which is used by the researcher for reliability and validity of the questionnaire.
Groundwater is one of earth’s most vital renewable and widely distributed resources as well as an important source of water supply throughout the world. The quality of water is a vital concern for human being since it is directly linked with welfare. Groundwater vulnerability assessment is very essential to identify regions where groundwater is suitable for various uses. A study of the vulnerability of groundwater for pollution in a region is required as it will provide information for taking precautionary measures. Groundwater quality in Guwahati city is studied with reference to the environmentally significant trace elements. The present study has been carried out with the objectives that to find out the ground water potential zone and find out the vulnerable area in the Guwahati city. The paper is also studied the impact of ground water to the human health. The study has carried out through field surveys and laboratory tests on samples taken from 32 points in the city. The ground water quality information maps of the entire study area have been prepared using Geographical Information System techniques for all the above parameters. From the findings some area in the city is identified as water contaminated area. The people in that area feel that the water they use is sometimes unsafe, and spread many water borne diseases. The results obtained in this study and the spatial database established in GIS will be helpful for monitoring and managing ground water pollution in the study area.
Being a fast growing industry and inexhaustible industry potentials, it has several positive sides like income generation, foreign exchange, employment opportunity. Among the different facets of tourism, spiritual tourism is one of the chief modes for attracting a large numbers of tourists. The state of Assam has numerous temples and other religious institutions. The capital city of Guwahati itself is a hub of many temples. Though it seems like religious yet it has different social positive effects in the form of spiritual tourism. Here an attempt has been made in this paper to bring into light the potentiality of spiritual tourism in near future and the other associated benefits that the locale can get out of it. Attempt has also been made to trace out the drawbacks of the temples and to overcome those.
Quality of Work Life (QWL) has become a buzzword among the intellectual section of the Society in India. QWL is one of the important elements in any organization. Higher QWL reflects better as well as sustainable working environment. The holistic concept of QWL encompasses all the elements of work and employees’ life. The concept becomes more important in the organization like colleges and other educational institutions. Better the QWL of educational institution, better are the positions of teachers to deliver best to the students and the society. The Guwahati city of Assam is one of the major hubs for education in whole North-east India. Guwahati city is the home of many popular colleges of the region. Along with government and provincialized colleges, Guwahati also have many number of private degree colleges providing education to huge number of students. Through the present study, researchers have made an attempt to focus lights on the QWL in the private degree colleges from the perspectives of teaching community.
Ethnic issues and question of ethnicity is a nineteenth century phenomenon. The growth of ethnic consciousness led to self-determination directed by various factors in different parts of the world according to their own historical background. In contemporary Assam,ethnic issues or complexity of ethnic political assertion has been an overwhelming issue in politics. To understand that complexity with its historical dimension, it is necessary to analyses the role of the government in tackling that issue within the ruling procedure of the country.
Ethnic issue is a living issue in Assam politics since the colonial rule passing through a historical dimension. This is an attempt to study the different dimensions of ethnic question of Assam with its basic causes and measuring the performances of the Congress Party as a ruling party of Assam with the analyses of some performances indicators.
The North East part of India possesses a distinctive geo-political character mainly due to distinctive location from the main land, diverse geographical framework, ethnic diversities, economic backwardness and uneven level of development. North –East India has been a homeland of various religious, ethnic, linguistic and cultural groups. In this circumstances, various ethnic, linguistic and religious groups demand their separate identity and indulged in identity movement, autonomy movements, secessionist movement etc. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the various factors responsible for the politics of identity movement in North East India especially the state of Assam..
In every society women constitute almost half of its population. Women are and have been central, not marginal, to the making of society and to the building of civilization. Despite their indispensable contribution they were marginalized and dominated throughout the ages by the men in the patriarchal societies. In the same way, the contribution of the Assamese women to the formation of its society was not less significant than the women of other societies. Their contribution to the history making process is also important since immemorial past. In spite of their vital contribution, the women in the Assamese Hindu families in the 19th century Assam were marginalized in the society which came under the patriarchal control long before that period. The 19th century was also the transitional period as consequence of the introduction of the British colonial rule and various social reform movements, which touched the women affairs too. In this context, an attempt is made in this paper to study about the position occupied by the Assamese women in the society in the 19th century Assam and also about their changing status as result of this social transition.
Indian painting art has a long tradition which is evolved from the time of stone age, when the human being had dwelling in rock shelter, they had practiced the painting work on the wall of rock shelter by the using of locally available colorants raw materials. The evidences of Indian prehistoric rock art painting has found in Bhimvetka, Azamgarh, Pratapgarh, Mirzapur and Vikramkhol, rock shelter sites. Later on cultural tradition of painting flowed down with Vedic, Buddhist, and Hindu period in ancient time. In this phase mural painting are found in Ajanta and Ellora and miniature painting are found in various manuscripts for illustration. The painting tradition has grown as usual professional caste based system that occupationally specialized art production. This painting art creativity attached socio-economic cultural behavior of certain primitive community. In this paper I attempt to study such traditional painting art producer community is Maharana community in a rural base Subarnapur region in middle Mahanadi valley, an ethnoarchaeological perspective. This community has not only expertise in drawing and painting but also other art objects production including, curving, engraving, sculpturing, and erecting of temple is an occupational and artisanal tradition.
The ecological condition of today is so critical that if not checked in due time it will be out of control. The different human practices like agriculture, industrial activities have emerged as a prime factor for the destruction of nature and ultimately there lies a situation of ecological imbalances. People inhabiting near the wildlife sanctuary usually have an emotional association with the nature setting. Therefore conservation of natural resources and preservation of cultural and heritage resources are of global concern at present. Tourism practices can be of handy enough in this regard with proper management strategies. The Assam’s Pabitora wildlife sanctuary is located in a strategic location surrounded by human habitated from all sides. Therefore a bottom up strategy is the need of the hour for the protection of the flora and fauna of the sanctuary in particular and the ecological balance of the sanctuary in general. In the present study an attempt has been made to understand the people sanctuary relationship and the role of tourism in making the livelihood of the nearby people with a sustainable way.
Every ethnic group of Assam have some individual cultural characteristics. But in the age of globalisation it is impossible to remain within the boundary of own culture. On the other hand the greater Assamese culture is formed by the contributions of all the ethnic communities. Various socio- cultural processes like acculturation, assimilation, progressive absorption, fusion, aryanisation, sanskritisation etc. has influenced upon almost all ethnic communities.
Religion is one of the important organs of society. It brings new elements to society and culture and a society is depended in large scale on religion in the maintaining of social norms and value. In the present scenario, religion and social change has become a common feature of every society. This is seen in the societies of the ethnic communities of Assam also.
Buddhism is one of the world’s religions accepting in the universe today. It is founded by Gotama Buddha over 2,500 years ago. Buddhism spread out of India after the 3rd century B.C with the help of Emperor Asoka and Ven.Sona and Uttara led the mission to Thaton (then called Suvanna bhumi) in lower Myanmar (then known as Burma) and introduced Buddhism so Buddhism has been flourishing in Myanmar since the time of Emperor Asoka. The historical background how Theravada type of Buddhism spread from its inception up to early Kongaung dynasty was traced.
Assam came under the British colonial rule in 1826 with the signing of Treaty of Yandaboo between the British and Yandaboo. The political development of 1826 brought many economic changes which ultimately led to many social changes among the different caste of the society of Assam. The Kaibartas is a fishing community in Assam also went through various socio-economic and political changes during the Colonial period. The objective of the present study is to analyse the changes among the Kaibartas from 1901 to 1947. The year 1901 has a significant in the changing scenario in social position of the fishing communities as the Kaibarta community began to analyse themselves and the Nadiyals and Doms (another fishing communities in assam) began to introduced themselves as Kaibartas in the Census report.
Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 and later amendments consider to ‘monogamy’ as only acceptable form of marriage. Nevertheless in some parts of our country like Himachal, Uttarakhand, Trivankore, Nilgiri, Haryana, Rajasthan, there polyandry marriage system is still being practiced as form of conventional process or due to shortage of brides in marriage markets. While I consider to the parallel films as prism of social reality, because none mainstream cinema and sociology are interrelated with each other and sometimes sociologists use films as prism of society to depict the social realism, so in context of post nineties none mainstream films I want to depict how does polyandry system violates the sexual rights of women..
Handicrafts sector can play a major role in the development of the economy of both developed and the developing countries. It provides employment to a vast segment of craftsperson in rural and semi-urban areas and generates substantial foreign exchange for the country while preserving its cultural heritage. But handicrafts have not received as much attention as they deserve. The performance of the existing institutional infrastructure both for financing and marketing of handicrafts is far from satisfaction. Artisans are depending on the middlemen for raw materials, finance and market for the finished products because of their illiteracy, ignorance and poverty. The success of handicrafts depends on how well the artisans can produce the articles in keeping with the tastes and preferences of consumers.
Like other parts in India, Assam is also known as the land of colourful handicraft products. Handicrafts have been playing a vital role in the cultural, social and economic development of Assam. But there are lack of proper marketing facilities which stands as bottlenecks in expansion and modernization of handicrafts products of Assam. In this paper, an attempt has been made to find out the marketing mix strategies of Assam Handicrafts based on four P’s i.e. Product, Price, Place and Promotion. The paper also enumerated the various problems being faced by the artisans while marketing their products along with some suggestive measures.
The unification of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) with tourism have reshaped the entire industry and brought about paradigm changes in terms of its structure and functions. ICT has benefitted both service providers and customers on a common platform. It has improved online presence of destinations through better visibility, accessibility, connectivity and infrastructure. The internet has opened up new vistas for the customer enabling them to search travel information, book tickets, make reservations, rate quality of service in hotels and restaurants etc.
Despite of having tremendous natural diasporas, North-East India has not got the prominent position that it deserves. In this context, ICT can provide significant opportunities for growth and development of local tourism industry in terms of reducing cost, time and enhancing capabilities. The subject of this research is to identify the gaps in the usage of ICT in NER’s tourism industry and further explores areas where ICT can be implemented.
The word ‘Brand’, believed to be derived from Old Norse word ‘Brandr, denotes several aspects of a product or a company. David Ogilvy, in his book Ogilvy on Advertising, defined brand as tangible sum of product’s attributes such as name, packaging, price, history, reputation and the way it’s advertised.
Post 1990s, as an effect of globalization of Indian economy, the standard of living of the people of the country changed remarkably. The rise in growth of income, availability of quality products at competitive price, widespread growth of media, changing perception of the citizens, rise in the level of education and sources of information among other factors brought some sea changes in lifestyle of the people of the country. Although, the changes were observed mainly in metros and cities, but the effect of changing marketing and social scenario swept across the country.
Media, after the invasion of satellite TV, private participation of FM radio, introduction Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), multidimensional growth of web, easy and affordability media of technology, etc. made epoch-making changes across all sections of the society.
Looking at the growth of media, it became necessary for the Indian and multinational companies to tie up with different vehicles of media to develop brand image, brand value and brand equity with customers. The tie-up of brands with media made a lot of changes in the brand consciousness among the existing and potential customers. This paper attempts to study the role of media in developing brand consciousness among the young college going students of Delhi and National Capital region.
The GST (GOODS AND SERVICES TAX) is defined as the vast indirect tax structure which is a game changer of the Indian economy. GST is a tax on goods and services with value addition at each stage having comprehensive and continuous chain of set of benefits from the producers/service producers point up to the retailer’s level where only the final consumer would bear the tax. It is really a big relief for business, as even today, because of layers of taxes and exemptions, the cost of tax compliance in India is too high. In sum, it is a much needed landmark reform. It will be interesting to see how this proposed GST will impact on the growth and development of the country.
Jyotiprasad Agarwala, a truly multifaceted genius has been considered to be an indispensable source of inspiration and incessant glory in the socio-cultural milieu of Greater Assam. His versatile and voluminous contribution towards the formulation and growth of a new horizon in the modern socio-cultural setting of Assam can never-ever be denied. Similarly his resourceful gifts and endowments towards the literary domain of Assam are also highly laudable. Further, his sincere devotion to the mother land Assam, and also to the entire nation—India-- has really been astounding. Most of his creative works prove this fact without any doubt. Inspired by true patriotic zeal, Agarwala could appropriately be considered as one of the worthy sons of Assam and India. The present paper through descriptive methodology attempts to analyze Agarwala’s responses as reflected in his creative writings towards the national movement of India for freedom.
In 1500 century, the sacred religious stream of Vaishnavite movement flowed all over India and in Assam Sankardev was pioneer. Sankardev has genius personality in various fields like Literature, Music, Art, Drama, Dance, Social reformation etc, but he got many obstacles to convey his spiritual ideology and perception to the common people’s heart and mind. Contemporary social rites and rituals, some influential person’s illegal interference, the tyranny of King and his officers created intense obstacles to propagate Vaishnavite ideology. But at last he reached great success of propagation, overcoming all prohibitions. The Bargeet (The Sacred Song) took a major part to convey his ideology to the common people therefore Dr. Banikanta Kakati (great Assamese scholar) mentioned Bargeets as “Holly Song”.
Composed by great Guru Sankardev and Madhabdev, high ethical and spiritually enriched these songs are called as “Bargeet”. (Bar means great, Geet means--Song) In Indian as well as in Assamese society and culture, it is emphasized on four folds of our life skill, like “Dharma, (Humanity) Artha (Money) Kama (Worldly desire) and Mokhya (Salvation). Without spiritual knowledge, person cannot attain at Mokhya-----it means ultimate freedom from ignorance of worldly life. The Bargeet can enlighten our life with great spiritual knowledge.
Allahabad is developed in different pockets some of its areas are extremely posh while others are having mixed land use pattern and life style so different areas are facing different type of health issue due to water pollution and environmental degradation. The underdeveloped area is facing the lack of safe drinking water supply. Many health problems and diseases in villages are due to use of polluted water. Improper disposal or lack of disposal of excreta adds to the sanitation problems. This area lacked proper drainage systems which lead to contamination of groundwater and other source of drinking water. These areas covered by economically poor people due to haphazard housing systems, lack fresh air, many rural households are single room units which get filled with smoke from burning of firewood and biomass and do not get adequate sun light. Allahabad is, in his transition period of development so except the core area of the city the other area also facing problem due to lack of urban and rural planning, lack of proper drainage and sanitation system which led to increase the pollution in the city. Rapid growth of urbanization has adversely stressed the environment. Allahabad City have unplanned and haphazard area with inadequate infrastructure. Industries are established without environmental assessment. Inadequate planning in the city led to chaos and environmental degradation which hamper the health well being issues.
Corporation is an integral part of the society. Its development and prosperity depends on the various stakeholders of the society. The failure or success is totally depends on the society. These corporate houses receive all the required inputs from the society. Their products or services are too consumed by the society. This creates an ample scope for the corporate houses to think and act for the betterment and sustenance of the society and its stakeholders. These Responsibility of Corporate houses can be termed as “Corporate Social Responsibility”.
CSR in India has been continuously influenced by the different national and international level guidelines and notification issued by different authorities time to time. However, the guidelines issued were voluntary in nature. It was not compulsion for corporate house to practice CSR. So, whatever they were practicing, were voluntary act of the corporate houses. However, the Companies Act, 2013 has brought a drastic change in the CSR practices in India. The provision of the said Act made CSR activities compulsory for the certain categories of companies in India. Through the present study researchers have drawn a comparison of CSR practices of select corporate public sector commercial banks and private sector commercial banks.
Man is a gregarious animal and so the life of an individual is inconceivable apart from a society. The primary aim of human existence according to Mahatma Gandhi is self-realization, and a society to Gandhi should be such as to promote the qualities of human personality to realize its final goal. The present Indian social setup is closely related with the past traditions and movements in the society. The advent of Gandhi on the social science marks a turning point to the history of social development. The varnasrama system of ancient India, according to Gandhi, tried to maintain the relation between the individual and the society in an ideal way. He tried to initiate important social reforms which have changed the very face if Indian society.
The Tai Ahom people are one of the important ethnic tribe of Assam as well as North -East India. They have been living mostly in the upper Assam district viz. Dibrugarh, Lakhimpur, Tinsukia, Jorhat, Golaghat, Dhemaji and also lives in Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. But their habitats scatter in these parts except a few numbers of villages where they largely inhabited e.g. Patchaku, Parijat, Bakata, Nemuguri, Mahmara etc. At present the Tai Ahom peoples were suffering from multiple problems and their socio economic condition is determines. Therefore, it is most important to study the present socio economic characteristics of the Tai Ahom people living in the Assam. The study is based on primary data which have been reflected the socio economic characteristic of Tai Ahom people.
ABSTRACT : Immigration issues have become a major political issue in North East India, leading to much conflict in last few decades. The issue poses challenges to democracy by affecting demography as well as social, political and cultural-religious set-ups. Scholars have generally analyzed these conflicts from a binary colonial standpoint. But recent research reveal several new underpinnings that point to other causal reasons for the breaks in social cohesion. This paper presents new research on these issues by putting forward two new concepts that has not yet been researched in the context of North East. This broader understanding will pave way forward to understand the fragile and complex situation in the region.
Keywords: Indirect Rule Colonialism, Structural Violence, Actor Driven Violence, demographic changes
M. N. Roy’s Radical Humanism is scientific humanism with a radical outlook. Originally his philosophical approach is materialistic which is different from mechanical and dialectical materialism. He considers his materialism as humanist materialism, which can explain all aspect of human existence. Explaining human nature from biological evolution, Roy recognizes three attributes of human nature- rationality, morality and freedom. These are the three main values of scientific humanism, which to Roy are causally connected. Man is essentially rational therefore he is moral. Again, as man is biologically rational, man tries to free himself from the tyranny of nature. He places “freedom” as supreme value.
Roy divides moral values into two categories- changing and basic values. Changing values are dependent upon social conditions. Basic values are eternal and immutable which are dependent on rational justification. In some cases immorality results from some objective condition, such as poverty, which can be solved by changing environment. But generally immorality depends on the character of man. So, unless the character of man is reformed, the basic moral problems cannot be solved. Therefore Roy recognizes the possibility of changing human nature through education. The present crisis of modern world is moral crisis and moral degeneration. Modern mankind may not be able to survive this crisis unless there will be development towards a higher form of social conscience in growing number of man and woman. To Roy, solution of this problem is the training of will and education in values. This training will be secular in character and would awaken the conscience of man. In an atmosphere of corruption and dishonesty, Roy retains his faith in man because he thought that man is essentially and potentially moral.
Keywords: Humanism, Rationality, Morality, Freedom, Value, Education .
From last part of 20th century, the middle Mahanadi valley has investigated by various agencies through exploration and excavation. The archaeological sites like Hikudi, Khameswaripali, Nuagarh, Kumersingha, Bhejidihi, Kurmidihi are excavated. The large amount of potteries has recovered in these archaeological sites of valley provided information of large scale pottery used by prehistoric people. But how to pottery produced in this valley by prehistoric craftsman is the matter of present archaeological investigation. This answer can get through ethno-archaeological inquiry. Now a day, this valley area also concentrated of large potter community, but the scale of production is declined in condition. The pottery making techniques of rudimentary skill of rural people is in the stage of vanish due to modern industry. This is an ethnographic attempt to understanding the mechanism of pottery making techniques which established relationship tool and techniques, the process of raw material procurement, to finally produce into finished vessels. It is also attach to socialisation, specialisation and standardisation of production activity. Subsistence pattern, specialisation of production, resources management and production system may be viewed as defining parameter of socio-political complexity. The different stage development and subsequently changes of quality of production can understand socio-cultural practice and demand of user through time.
KeyWords :Primitive, Craftsman, Tools, Techniques, Process, Mechanism.
Dibrugarh is the third largest city (on the basis of population census 2011) in Assam which is famous for its trade & commerce, medical college and higher education in the entire north Eastern region. It is situated in the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River. It extended from 27°05’ to 27°42’ north latitude and 94°33’ to 95 29’ east longitudes. Solid waste is a major problem for Dibrugarh municipal area as other like towns and city of India. This present study is carried out to understand the present scenario of solid waste management problem of Dibrugarh municipal area. It is estimated that Dibrugarh Town produces nearly 35 MT of solid waste per day. The Dibrugarh Municipal Board (DMB) has facing the problem for disposal of solid waste as the open dumping ground is affecting the people and environment around the site of Maijan. The waste management system of Dibrugarh is more complicated because of the open air dumping system since last three decades as well as proximity to river Brahmaputra dike area which is unsuitable and unscientific for dumping process. There is a great potentiality of Biogas production and vermicompost generation from waste dumping areas because 90% waste is bio-degradable. People of this municipal area have no sound awareness in this problem. There is immediate need of advanced technical measures for mitigate the waste management problem in this town further.
Keywords: Dibrugarh, DMB, Solid Waste Problem, Awareness .
Rural households are faced with the problem of scarcity of resources as well as inadequate supply of food items. Rural Below Poverty Line (BPL) households have faced the problem of achieving adequate food stuffs for their day to day consumption. The present study attempts to estimate the food security status and identify the various socio economic and demographic determinants of food security among the rural BPL households in Golaghat district of Assam. By measuring food security of rural BPL households with daily per capita calorie intake method, it was found that only 25.25 percent rural BPL households are food secure. The results of the binary logistic regression model reveals that per capita income of the household, age of the household head , sex of the household head, education level of the household head and family size were significant determinants of food security status of the rural BPL households in the study area. The study recommends strengthening the food safety nets in the rural area as well as creating opportunities to diversify their sources of income for the rural households in order to meet their minimum food requirements throughout the year.
Keywords: BPL, Determinants, Food Security, Per Capita Calorie, Rural.
“In all history there is no war which was not hatched by the governments alone, independent of the interests of the people, to whom war is always pernicious even when successful.” –Leo Tolstoy
Unfortunately the tale of the people is brutally neglected while recounting histories of war. Most of the writings on South Asian history are dominated by elitist history, where the role of the subalterns is not documented. Shahid Amin, in the book ‘Event, Metaphor, Memory’ has spoken how the unforgettable event of Chauri-Chaura was largely forgotten in the nationalist lore and it came to be remembered only as the episode that forced Gandhi to call off his all India movement of non-cooperation with the British. The event of Indo-China war of 1962 is no exception. An enormous number of works are written on the event. However, most of the works lack in recounting the role and contributions of the masses in diverse capacities. It is an undeniable fact that no crisis can take the form of war without active participation and support of citizens of a participating nation. The participation may be free-willed, or forced. In most cases, the government assures the people that they are in danger from the invasion of another nation, or from foes in their midst, and that the only way to escape this danger is by the slavish obedience of the people to their government. Gautam Bhadra in the article ‘The Mentality of Subalternity: Kantanama and Rajdharma’ has mentioned that submissiveness to authority is another characteristic of subaltern mentality as defiance. It is this combination of mentality, on account of which, the poor and the oppressed have time and again and in different histories, made voluntary sacrifices in favour of the rich and the dominant, at least as often as they have rebelled against the latter. From time immemorial, youth has always been at the forefront of political participation. The same is true of 1962 Indo-China war. Meetings, propaganda and campaigns for National Defence Fund were regular phenomenon during that time. Various organizations were born in the heart of academic institutions, from primary level to institutes of higher education. Their contribution hardly finds a mention in existing literature. Oral history and memoirs come to rescue when masses are obscured from official history. The objective of the research paper is to reflect the role played by students of different corners of Assam during Indo-China war, 1962.
Keywords: Indo-China War, Subaltern History, Student Mobilization, Oral History, War memoir
Both men and women constitute total population of the world . A state will not progress without equal participation of both men and women at the decision making level. India is the largest democracy in the world. Assam is situated at the north eastern part of India. There are many matriarchal tribes live in Assam as well as its neighbouring states. On many occasions like freedom movement, foreigners movement, language movement women participated to a large extent. But because of many reasons their participation at the decision making level is not up to the mark. Only a few women took part in the active politics though they enjoyed comparatively good status at the social level in comparison to the other Indian states. Some of them elected in the legislature took part in the assembly debate but they are not allotted to high ministerial post except one or two. In this paper an attempt has been made to discuss the role of Assamese women at the decision making level including some suggestion to solve the problem to a great extend.
Keywords: Gender, Legislative, Assembly, Political party, Empowerment.
Family planning aims primarily at lowering fertility for the development and welfare of the nation. It also encompasses women’s reproductive and child health. But it is found that the method of contraception remains obscure especially among the women of the developing countries and thereby the proportion of unintended pregnancies is also seemed to be high. Promotion of family planning, availability and distribution of contraception are not just enough to influence the acceptance of family planning. There exist certain barriers regarding the practices of different methods of contraception. Therefore based on secondary sources this paper tries to focus on the factors that affects family planning. Various issues and challenges are found associated with family planning in the developing countries. Therefore this paper reveals that there are various socio-economic as well as cultural and religious factors that stands as a barrier to family planning. These factors includes, level of education, gender roles, income, religion etc.
Keywords: Family planning, Issues, Challenges , Population, Transmitted diseases
Tribal population in India needs special attention in every health issue, therefore family planning can’t be the exceptional case. Family planning is also important but neglected determinant of reproductive health in a tribal context. Present article aimed to understand the scenario of family planning in the tribal area and highlights how far the concept of family planning dissolved in the tribal area and in what way people accepted it. A mixed method study conducted in Kurkheda Tahsil of Gadhchiroli district in Maharashtra. Interviews of 202 tribal women conducted by using a semi structured interview guide.
Study displayed that the knowledge of the methods of family planning has not completely reached in the tribal area since only 35.6 % of women know more than two methods of family planning. The study also found that only 6% of women knowing about the MTP act. Study also gives more insights on abortion practices in the tribal area and its impact on the family planning. Further, it talks about how the family planning in the tribal area is restricted to the tubectomy and vasectomy and its causes.
In the tribal area there is a superficial understanding of concepts and the rationale behind the family planning. There is un-acceptance of modern methods of family planning along with resistance to change from the community side because of less education and inability to understand the rationale behind the use of contraceptives. It is needed to find out why it’s completely not reaching to the tribal women then we will be able to contribute in achieving the reproductive health of tribal women.
Keywords: Family planning, Knowledge, Practices, Tribal women, MTP act .
The Bodos are one of the important tribal groups of Assam plains particularly inhabiting in the northern part of the Brahmaputra Valley. They are one of the aboriginal tribal groups of Assam belonging to the Tibeto-Burman linguistic family of the Mongoloid race. The growth of modern education among the Bodos of the Brahmaputra Valley from the middle of the nineteenth century is an important development in the history of the Bodos of Assam in modern times. The growth of education among the Bodos was not the result of the interest of the colonial masters and the Christian missionaries only, but also the endeavour of the people themselves. Education brought socio-political changes among the Bodos. People’s aspiration for establishing their identity started to grow with the spread of education and the development had helped in understanding their own language and literature. The growth of education in Bodo medium at a later date provided the people an opportunity to think and look in retrospect about themselves and the society as a whole. In this sense, a study of the growth and development of modern education among the Bodos and its impact can help in understanding the society and the kind of dynamics which is there within.
Keywords: Brahmaputra Valley Bodos, Colonial initiative ,Education, Language, Mongoloid.
The present study is undertaken with a view to know the frequency of internet use, preference of time and purpose of using internet among the Bodoland University students. The sample of the present study is drawn from PG students, M.Phil and Ph. D. scholars. The sample is consisted of 100 students 50 each belong to male and female category. For selection of sample purposive sampling technique has been adopted. In order to assess for surfing internet self-designed questionnaire comprising of 16 items relating to internet access was used. On the basis of filled up questionnaire received from the respondents, the data has been analyzed and tabulated. For data analysis and interpretation, percentage analysis and pie chart has been adopted. The present work was carried out during August 2017 to October, 2017. Therefore the present investigation is delimited to the students of Bodoland University Kokrajhar only.
Keywords: Internet, ICT, Electronic resources, Bodoland University, Digital Lab.
The Consumer Protection Bill, 1986 was introduced in order to protect consumers from the evil clutches of profit-hungry businessmen. The present law relating to consumer protection is contained in the Consumer Protection Act, 1986, the Consumer Protection Rules, 1987 and the Consumer Protection Regulations, 2005. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 is the most progressive statute for consumer protection in India. In order to protect the interests of consumers, the Act provides for the establishment of Consumer Protection Councils at the Central, State and District level which are advisory in nature. The Act is designed to give speedy relief to the consumer at affordable cost. A number of voluntary consumer organizations and NGOs which number over 800 are working in India to protect and help consumers in one way or more. The government also conducts various programs at different times to spread consumer awareness among people. All of these attempts have not been successful in curbing consumer exploitation. Majority of consumers are still skeptical about going for legal aid in getting grievances redressed. Thus, the present study aims to find whether unawareness is the only cause or there are others as well. For this, Tezpur, a semi-urban town in the Sonitpur District of Assam has been taken under study and 1000 respondents have been interrogated.
Keywords: Consumer, Consumer Protection Act, 1986, Tezpur, Sonitpur District Forum, Consumer Unawareness.
Exclusion of marginalized section is deeply rooted in Indian society for thousands of years.Given historical exclusion of Hindu society, Indian education was limited only for so called upper castes groups. After enormous efforts by social reformers and constitutional provisions the government of India has taken up several schemes and programmes to include the Scheduled Castes (SC) into mainstream education. As education is perceived as a mechanism for social and economic advancement for the society but in reality; still there is inequality in it. However, various studies reveal that there is still a long way to go to access academic deliverance, equal rights in education, learning outcomes and reducing drop-outs at each level of education, these are some of the major issues that concern for all. Although the state of Maharashtra is relatively better in education of SC’s but still many studies depict several issues that hamper educational mobility of these communities. The impact of socio-economically weaker background affects their academic performance and that is the reason SC student are facing difficulties at each stage of their educational journey. Most of the SC students are unable to complete the necessary reading and writing at their primary level which sticks them back to perform well in the secondary level. Caste discrimination, poverty, lack of confidence and good learning environment, and unawareness about government policies and programmes for education, these are factors affecting academic performance/learning outcome of SC students. Most of the SC students lagging behind in academic performance and these lagging behind students have no interest and motivating factors to pursue higher education which leads to higher drop-out rate. This paper is a review of all secondary works on the subject of social exclusion of SC students in the education system, with a special reference to Maharashtra. The paper tries to put out the factors that have been seen as impediments to access of education by SC students. The factors affecting the academic progress of students have been analysed under various heads including learning difficulties, student’s needs and socio economic factors.
Keywords: Education, Scheduled Caste, Students Learning Outcome, Maharashtra.
The gravitational wave is the time dependent perturbation in the spacetime. The discovery of Gravitational wave by LIGO not only proved the GTR but also opened a new era of astrophysics. It has some advantage over the electromagnetic and sound wave, which is helpful to detect merging of the black hole at very large distances. LIGO-India project will be helpful in prescribing proper location of the source of the gravitational wave. As LIGO with longer arms are very difficult to make, so it is a challenge to the experimental astrophysicists to detect week signals. PTA, the natural tool of detection is advantageous because of its large arms.
Keywords:Gravitational Wave, Binary system, Black hole, LIGO, PTA.
The conventional depiction of ‘folk’ generally contains a rich symbolism of gender that emerges from our folklore. Various narratives of folklore presents gender roles demarcating social perception of duties, wishes and desires that men and women take on. The cultural space of women is severely cramped under the patriarchal ethos which is reflected is folklore across the world and through ages. The patriarchal ethos that very often limits the space of women defines them in terms of roles such as daughter, sister, wife and mother and domesticity is generally considered the only proper field for women. However, within the body of folklore there is a strong current of subversion of patriarchal values and folklore often carries a register of femino-centric attitudes, approaches and events. Although most frequently indirect, these protests have sometimes been direct too. Folklore also contains many narratives of individuals coming to accept or subvert or openly question the socially gender-appropriate roles prescribes for them. The present paper attempts to examine the depiction of gender role in Assamese folk narratives and trace the chord of discontent among women in folk culture.
Keywords:Folklore, Gender, Discontent, Traditional, Assamese narratives.
As the name suggests Disangmukh is a place where Mighty Brahmaputra and Disang joining together, the place is also an ultimate destination for tourists to have a close look to the Mishing community people, one of the colourful communities of Assam. The Mishing people are an ethnic tribal group. The Government of Assam with the help of the local people have started celebrating “Disang Festival” annually to foster socio-culture identity of the Mishing community. This festival has drawn people from different parts of the country. One will explore the greater Tourism potentialities in the area. But at present, the Mishing people of Disangmukh area were suffering from multiple problems and their socio-economic condition is determines. Therefore, it is most important to study the present socio economic characteristics of the Mishing people living in the Disangmukh area of Sibsagar district of Assam. The present paper is based on primary data which have been reflected the socio-economic characteristics of Mishing people of Disangmukh area.
Keywords: Disangmukh, Assam, Mishing, Socio-economic, Income level.
Kiran Desai is a significant emerging Indian writer in the postcolonial era who has embarked upon a large number of crucial issues concerning the postcolonial Indian society. Desai won the Booker prize for her outstanding novel The Inheritance of Loss in 2006. Desai has another novel namely The Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard (1998) to her credit. In her Booker winning novel The Inheritance of Loss, Desai extensively deliberates upon the multiple forms of resistances that the marginalized in postcolonial India have undertaken for subsistence and such purposes. Hence the words “marginalization” and “resistance” assume great importance in the context of this novel where the writer has demonstrated amply some of the vital and crucial issues of the Indian society and the challenges that the common and peripheral Indians are facing in the wake of numerous unwanted incidents and exploitative happenings. This paper is, thus, an attempt to show how resistance has become a crucial area of discussion in postcolonial writings through the close analysis of a novel namely The Inheritance of Loss by Kiran Desai with the help of some of the ideas of Helen Tiffin on resistance. The paper would also focus on the plurality and multifacetedness of resistance along with its various forms as seen in most of the cases. It would also study how sometimes resistance can be wayward making the marginalized people victims apart from dealing with the question of the continuity of resistance among the groups after achievement of the goals or failure.
Keywords: Resistance, Marginals, Plurality, Postcolonialism, Inheritance of Loss .
The State of Manipur has travelled a long way to democracy since the early period of its history. The Maharaja of Manipur had introduced electoral process for the introduction of democratic government in Manipur under the Manipur State Constitution Act, 1947. It was in 1948 that election for the Manipur State Assembly was held. Men and Women were given equal political right for electing the representatives of the people. Manipur women were given voting rights without any hindrance to choose their own candidates.
Keywords: Democracy, Electoral Process, Political Right, Voting Right etc.
Human Rights Education declares a commitment to those human rights expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, the UN Covenants, and the United States Bill of Rights. It asserts the responsibility to respect, protect, and promote the rights of all people. The Human Right Education mainly includes- the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity; the promotion of understanding, tolerance, gender equality, and friendship among all nations, indigenous peoples and racial, national, ethnic, religious and linguistic groups etc.The objective is to study the impact of locality and awareness of gender on human right education of school children. A sample of 400 (200 boys and 200 girls) students were collected from rural and urban Government primary school of Lakhipur block of Goalpara District of Assam. The collected data was statistically analyzed; for analyzing the data percentage was used. Based on the findings of the study, it revealed that locality has significant influence on human right education of school children and there is also significance awareness of gender on human rights.
Keywords: Human Rights, Political Rights, Education, Lakhipur block, Universal Declaration.
There is a large ambiguity about the nature and status of women in Indian society. There are some sacred texts which give them a loftier status by saying them as mother goddess as Durga, Kali, Chandi etc. Women are envisaged as a symbol of power and they can evoke both fear and reverence. Woman can protect others and in different circumstances they can also wreak vengeance. If pleased, they can fulfill every wish and in contrast when annoyed they can unleash unprecedented displeasure. Some of their attributes are believed to be invested in every woman. On the other hand, there is another profile of woman which is sanctioned by the religious scriptures. Sometimes woman is believed to be fickle and fragile in nature. She is alleged to be sensuous, a temptress, given to falsehood, folly, greedy and a symbol of impurity and thoughtless action. She, in this way, is regarded as the root of all evils. These two images in respect of women are contradictory. This ideology of utmost subordination and ambiguity linked mainly to Hinduism is pervasive and it has affected the ethos of almost the entire Indian Society. The aim of this paper is to study the imbalances suffered by the women in India in different fields which are leading to the violation of their human rights.
Keywords: Constitution, Discrimination, Education, Girl-child, Marriage.
The Right to Education Act (RTE) was passed in 2009 which is clearly mentioned in Article 21A of Indian Constitution. It is a holistic education approach of our country by which constitution of India has promised to provide free and compulsory primary education of all children between the age group of 6-14 years. Baksa District is one of the Socio-Economically backward area of Assam where elementary education is not yet been developed as compared to the other districts of Assam. The study is mainly observed about the economic status of guardians, infrastructure facilities and community participation in primary schools of the area. The investigator has given many suggestions for 100% universal retention, enrolment and provision of primary education for the children.
Keywords: Primary, Education, Children, Schools, Study.
The implementation of GST for the e-commerce company can give them a much needed relief from the recurrent sales tax demands, investigations, and stoppage of goods at the check post. The e-commerce industry in India is still in its infancy, but it has shown a remarkable growth over a period of time and has contributed significantly to the country’s Gross Domestic Product. GST is basically an indirect tax levied on the sale of goods and services and is considered a solution to several complex tax maladies being encountered by the E-commerce companies in the retail sector. For Government, it leads to reduction of tax compliance efforts and administrative costs and for business, units it leads to transparency, complete set-off and removal of cascading effect of taxation.In this paper, the researchers have tried to find out the implications of GST on e-commerce in the retail sector and some challenges in Governance.
Keywords: Goods and Services Tax, E-commerce, Retail sector, Tax, Indirect Tax.
Witch hunting is one of the most dangerous superstitions prevailing all over India. Meanwhile from last few years people of Assam have been witnessing some pathetic killings of innocent lives, mostly women, in rural areas by erratic mob under the suspicion of witch practices (practices of ‘daini’). The incidents of witch hunting are an unbearable tragedy for 21st century as it is the age of science and technology where progressive thinking reins the supreme. These evil practices are due to the socio-economic backwardness of the people, lack of proper education and scientific outlook among the rural folk. These are not only the reasons; the patriarchal society is also responsible as we notice that the most of victims are women. This kind of evil practice should be stopped with immediate efforts as it is inhuman, injustice and barbaric in nature. Through this paper we will try to focus on the issue of brutal killings of innocent lives in the name of traditional beliefs and practices with the attempt to locate the role of NGOs and civil society to eradicate such social evils from society on the one hand and liberate those innocent human beings from impending threat in future.
Keywords: Witch-hunting, Tradition, Civil Society, North-Eastern region, Science and technology.
Sex is a biological term while gender is a social construct. The distinct circles of feminity and masculinity are well instructed to children frpm a tender age, which goeas a long way in paving the future attitude and social behaviour of males with females and vice-versa. Many religious texts prescribes norms to conduct women’s sexuality which is seen to be very vulnerable by the patriarchical society. Molestations, rapes, dowry deaths reported in the media just state the figures of women meeting an unlikely event but they can also provide insights into why the scenario is such. The present paper discusses the factors which may be to a large extent responsible for social evils against women, The paper also puts an attempt on how the general psyche of the patriarchical society can be challenged and future prospects for a more equal society between the sexes can be anticipated.
Keywords: sexuality, vulnerable, patriarchy, social evils, society.
The Rabhas are one of the important scheduled tribe communities of Assam. From the population strength, they occupy the fourth position in Assam plains. They belong to the Mongoloid race. Linguistically they fall under the Bodo sub-group of the Tibeto- Burman family. They are mainly concentrated in the three districts namely, Goalpara, Kamrup and undivided Darrang of Assam and in some parts of Meghalaya, West Bengal, Bangladesh and Nepal. Till date, no specific and scientific study has been carried out on the origin and migration of the Rabha tribe in particular. The study on other cognate tribal groups like Bodo, Garo, etc. provides information on the tribe. It is felt that the available sources have failed to provide concrete and decisive conclusion on the origin and migration of the Rabha tribe. To carry out a specific ethnic study on the Rabhas, the urgent need is to explore all possible fields and to carry out an intergraded study with the help of modern tools. The present paper will try to focus on the gap areas of the study of sources of the origin and migration of the Rabha tribe in Assam.
The weavingoftextilein handloom has a long traditionare seen inthe evidences of corded pottery of Neolithic periodwhich is imprinted by woven texture has found different archaeological sites in the world. Other Evidences have found in decorative motives ofsculptural figure wearing clothes and dresses in architecture are representedtextiles. There are no direct evidences on handloom woven textile on relevant archaeological records by prehistoric artisanbecause the textiles are perishable.But the certain evidences textile remains found in Indus valley civilization. No doubt the wearing of clothes in the history of mankind has seemed in the stage of Neolithic revolution when man as a settle life. From that time the tradition of handloom weaving has continued to today.Theweaving handloom textilehas a long tradition produced by prehistoric artisan from the time Neolithic to present day has continued process and flow down from one generation to another. This is an ethno-archaeological attempt to study the Sambalpuri textile production system in middle Mahanadi valley. The weaver community has produced ikat (bandha kala)textile isnot only popular in national but also in international market. The analysis art of weaving on cultural progression of socio-economic life in middle Mahanadi valley and their cognitive ideas are important aspects for reconstruction of cultural pattern.
The state of Assam has always been well known for its handicraft industries. Being endowed with natural resources, a variety of handicraft items are produced in different regions of the state. In the year 2008, North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Limited (NEDFi), a public sector company introduced the use of water hyacinth plant for making different handicraft products .
Water hyacinth is a kind of aquatic plant. By using the dried stems of water hyacinth different types household and utility products can be produced. Assam is a state where water hyacinth plants are available in abundant quantities in water bodies like ponds, lakes and any type of wetland. The dried stems of water hyacinth can be weaved as that of bamboo, cane and jute to make variety of products. At present some entrepreneurs of Darrang, Dhubri and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam are doing this work successfully giving employment to a number of rural poor particularly the women and thus playing an important role in improving their socio-economic status. As the whole benefit from this industry go to the rural poor, this paper makes an attempt to study the role of this craft as a source of livelihood for rural poor in the state of Assam. The paper has selected ‘Darrang district’ as the study region for analytical purposes. The study is based on both primary and secondary data.
Water is a basic necessity and an important resource for sustaining life. The decline in water quality endangers the health of humans as well as the ecosystem. People affected by disasters are generally much more susceptible to illness and death from diseases, which are related to a large extent to inadequate sanitation, inadequate water supplies and poor hygiene. Therefore, adequate or clean drinking water, sanitation and hygiene play an important role in maintaining health. Tea garden communities are the part and parcel of our society. Without the improvement of their sanitation and hygiene practices, the overall health status of the society will be vulnerable. Thus, the main intent of the present paper is to study the status of water supply, sanitation and hygiene practices among tea garden population of Sibsagar district of Assam.
Today child labour as well as women labour is a global phenomenon and a harsh reality. Though the magnitude differs, the problem exists not only in under- developed and developing countries, but also in developed countries. More than 10 per cent of the world’s 2.2 billion children are engaged in child labour, the majority of them working in agriculture, often with hazardous chemicals or machinery. About 10 million are trapped in slavery, trafficking, prostitution, and armed conflict. According to the census 2001, there are 12.5 million working children in the age group of 5-14 years as compared to the total child population of 252 million i.e. 4.96 percent of total children are child and women labour in India. The problem of child and women labour can be traced to the industrial revolution which emerged in the middle of 18th century in England and 19th century in India. It was around this time that the exploitation of labour began in order to maximize the profits. Viewing child and women labour as a social problem and the need to protect them came to fore front when exploitation of children became very common during this era. Overtime consciousness regarding labour rights evolved and legal measures was introduced both in developed and developing countries to curb this problem mainly to protect the employment and wages of adult workers. This paper will look into the major policy intervention as well as legal provisions for eradication of child and women labour. Firstly, history of child and women labour problem will be described then legal measures for protection of child and women labour in India will be discussed.
Primary Education is generally provided after completion of pre-primary education which is the key to success both the secondary and higher education of our country. It starts between the age group of 6-14 years of children, it is clearly mentioned in an article No.45 of Indian contribution. Proposed study area is Baksa district of BTAD (Bodo Territorial Area Districts) of Assam covering an area of 2400 sq.k.m and Mushalpur is the administrative headquarter of the district. According to 2011 census, the literacy percentage of the district is 70.53. Present study is dealt with the primary education development status in Baksa district of Assam. The study is also observed various primary education problems of the district and given various qualitative suggestions to overcome the problems.
The present paper comprises social and economic characteristics of the 24 surrounding small towns of Guwahati city. It includes the analysis of sex- ratio, literacy, education and composite Index and other demographic features. It is, therefore, essential to study the impact of these factors so as to accelerate the tempo of urban development in an organised way for the stagnant small urban centres in the study.of Assam.
Urbanization and high increasing population growth is one of the major causes of environmental pollution in today’s world and its proper management has become a major issue of Municipal Corporation. Humans are not the only one affected by improper garbage disposal but it affects the animals too.Related to this aspect the present paper tries to portray about the environmental condition of Tinsukia town which is been constantly affected by the practice of improper disposal of garbage specially by the street vendors who spend their most of the time near by the road area and also due to the inadequate sanitation facility in the market area and its related impact upon the health as well.
Water is a basic necessity and an important resource for sustaining life. The decline in water quality endangers the health of humans as well as the ecosystem. People affected by disasters are generally much more susceptible to illness and death from diseases, which are related to a large extent to inadequate sanitation, inadequate water supplies and poor hygiene. Therefore, adequate or clean drinking water, sanitation and hygiene play an important role in maintaining health. Tea garden communities are the part and parcel of our society. Without the improvement of their sanitation and hygiene practices, the overall health status of the society will be vulnerable. Thus, the main intent of the present paper is to study the status of water supply, sanitation and hygiene practices among tea garden population of Sibsagar district of Assam.
To be suitable conduct and comply with this morality, (3) items therefore, called as “three dignities”. That three dignities called as noble conduct of Buddhist admonition “Sasana Buddhism Virtues”. That mean at the sermonize as soon as established to that three dignities and become to principle truth obtained persons by complete conduct for listen to sermonize and would like to that principle truth with meditation when arising that Sasana Buddhism. Recognizance called as Religious staff, monk, and member of Buddhist order. Thereby established to Sasana Buddhism Buddhist Era and serve to Sasana Buddhism duty and become the monks for protect to Sasana Buddhism. At the early period, that serve to Sasana Buddhism duty the minks are obtained the principle truth and really truthful respect and come to meditation with goodwill and benevolence, thereby not require to prohibit discipline of conduct laws. Prescribe to do permission law. Sasana Buddhism mean admonition directives of Buddhist. That admonition directives is three repositories of Buddhist scriptures and called as study of Pariyard principle truth by source. Conduct to that Buddhist scriptures “Pariyard” by directives there after throughout understand the renunciation “Magg Pho Neikban” is called as faculty to comprehend the teaching of the Buddha “Paniwaida” Sasana Buddhism. In the three chaste morality or Sila in main cause. Found to having truth integrity at morality, dignity pure person. Having the concentrated person shall be taken to throughout intelligence.
Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. A health risk assessment is also referred to as a health risk appraisal and health and well-being assessment that is one of the most widely used screening tools in the field of health promotion and is often the first step in multi-component health promotion programs. The health risks posed by the occupation may be greater for children than for adults. The objectives of this paper is to study the current practices of waste picking of the child waste pickers and their health risks to which waste pickers are exposed in their work and often in their homes. The paper is also study the efforts for better health of child waste pickers in Guwahati city .The methodology adopted for the study is based on primary data collected from the study area and it presents the findings of a study on the health problems of a group of 100 children living in informal settlements in Guwahati city, Assam in which the health problems of those who work as waste pickers were compared to those who do not. The finding shows that the health statuses of the child waste pickers are not well. Due to poor livelihood pattern and ailing environment make their life unhealthy in terms of physical as well as mental.
Bodos are one of the important tribal groups of Brahmaputra Valley. The language spoken by them is the Bodo language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman Language family. Till the emergence of the British in Assam, the language was in a dialect form. The Christian Missionaries had first given it a written shape by using Roman script. From the early eighteenth century, at the initiatives of the newly emerged educated class, the journey of Bodo literature started with “Bibar”. It further hastened the identity formation among the Bodo language speaking groups of Assam that scattered in different parts with different names like Kachari in Darrang and Kamrup and Mech in Goalpara district.
During the post-independence period, the developments directed to the demand for introduction of Bodo language as a medium of instruction in elementary level. The untiring efforts of the Bodo Sahitya Sabha had accelerated the process for introduction of the language up to the Post-Graduate level and paved the way for inclusion in the Eight Schedule of the Constitution. The language has its direct bearing on their socio-political arena leading to the grant of separate autonomous structure in the northern part of the Brahmaputra River under the Sixth Schedule arrangement.
The role of language in identity formation among the Bodos of Assam give rise of a new thrust among other tribal groups of Assam too.
Thus, the initiatives for preservation and development of the Bodo language have its major impact not only on the community in discussion, but also on other groups of the region.
Keywords: Bodos, Garos, Mongoloid, Rabhas, Tibeto-Chinese.
Horticulture is one of the fastest growing sectors of agriculture with the growth rate of 5.5 per cent during last two and half decades where women play a significant and crucial role including production, post-harvest operation and value addition. But despite their extensive and active involvement in horticultural activities, they are not considered for decision making in these activities. Women’s active involvement in decision making is considered as essential for rapid economic development of the country. A sample of 300 rural women from 12 villages of the Kamrup (Rural) and Sivasagar districts who were mostly engaged in fruits and vegetable cultivation were selected randomly as respondents for the study with the objective of studying the decision making pattern of rural women in horticultural activities. Data collection was done by using structured interview schedules. The study revealed that majority of rural women (74.67%) took independent decision in amount of produce to be kept for consumption followed by 45.00 per cent in amount of produce to be kept for sale and 44.00 per cent in transplanting. The study further revealed that majority of rural women (72.66%) took joint decision in weeding followed by 69.00 per cent in marketing and 67.67 per cent in preparation of organic manure. The interesting finding of the study regarding overall decision making pattern of rural women in horticultural activities is that 60.00 per cent of rural women had medium level of decision making followed by 20.83 per cent had low level of decision making and 19.17 per cent had high level of decision making.
Keywords: Decision making; Horticulture; fruits & vegetable production; consumption; sale; transplanting; weeding; marketing; organic manure.
The art and culture of dressing up is pivotal in any culture or civilization. Clothes are the direct representation of any individual’s physical appearances making it highly visible in the construction of their own social identity in general and gender identity in particular. In the everyday life of individuals clothes become such an important part of their personality that their subjective self is more or less revolved around that dressing pattern. In this paper I try to understand how saris occupy a very important place in the everyday life of Indian woman and helps in building up the agencies of self expression in terms of personal narratives. In doing so, I study how saris have been presented and represented throughout Indian history. Using the lenses of the everydayness and lifeworlds by William Dilthey, I study how the new aged movements in social media like the 100 days of saris pact have been able to reinvigorate saris within the subjective world of Indian women by also provided an agency of expression to woman and relation to the garment they wear. In this way, I would argue on how saris are able to provide a means of self-expression and self-narration for Indian woman.
Keywords: Saris, Indian woman, everyday life, self-expression.
Among the vital aspects of our consideration in Education, curriculum is undoubtedly of greater importance. Curriculum in education represents the glory and achievements of the past, need and utility of the present and hopes and aspirations of the future. In formal education, a curriculum is the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. Curriculum concerns are central to the teaching-learning process and need to focus on choice, relevance and renewal. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. In its broader sense a curriculum may refer to all courses offered in an educational institution.
Curriculum development is a very lengthy process in the current system due to which the curriculum loses relevance. Specially, at undergraduate level of education under Gauhati university there is a question mark regarding the relevance of existing curriculum so far as semester system is concerned. There are lots of defects of existing curriculum at undergraduate level under Gauhati University. The present study is an attempt to highlight the defects and problems of curriculum at undergraduate level under Gauhati University and also to give some suggestions in this regard.
Keywords: Present Curriculum, Undergraduate Level, Gauhati University, Semester System.
This paper aims to present the sustainable development of tourism market in Assam through the alternative forms of tourism. It is about developing new forms of sustainable tourism that integrate local populations and both natural and human environments of host countries. Assam is a state in northeastern India known for its wildlife, archeological sites and tea plantations. Ecotourism, cultural tourism, and rural tourism support a different philosophy of tourism. Among them, ecotourism has been acknowledged to have comparative advantage as source of economic, environmental and social welfare, provided a process of planning, evaluation, control, and continuous adjustments is put in place. In Assam ecotourism in recent years encloses many tourism forms focused on natural environment. In the concept of alternative tourism, the dynamic growth of cultural tourism can be explained by the fast growth of demand for trips to various cultural attractions. In this way, the article provides a simplified approach of the new “alternatives” tourism development and distinguishes the current trends in tourism market.
Keywords: Sustainable development, Alternative tourism, Ccotourism, Cultural tourism, Assam
Mathematics anxiety plays a very crucial role in the academic achievement of a student. Present study is an attempt to identify the level of mathematics anxiety of the secondary school students. Here, the investigator has adopted descriptive research method and for sample randomly selected 100 students of class IX from 5 purposively chosen secondary schools of Kamrup( M) Guwahati. Data were collected by using a scale developed byDr.Mahmood and Dr.Khaoon, named as “Mathematics Anxiety Scale” and comparison of anxiety has been done by gender basis. The objectives of the study were: study the anxiety of secondary school students towards Mathematics and the compare the anxiety of secondary students towards mathematics with respect to the variable gender.
This study revealed that mathematics anxiety is still exist in the secondary schools and there exists no significant difference in Mathematics anxiety between the boys and girls students.
Keywords:Anxiety, Mathematics, Secondary School Student, Gender.
The Ancient education system of India is among the developed society of the world. The Indus-valley civilisation is a pioneer of developed world. The history of use of instructional aides and techniques in Indian classroom can be traced back to the time when early tribal authorities systemized bodies of knowledge, and early cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. The ancient 'Gurukul' system of education in Ashrama, middle age Maktabs, masjids, Khanqash or other institutions of education have used their own instructional aides. Instead of taking hold of the perished system of Indian education, the British administers began to root out the existing Indian village education system. So along with the development of modern schooling system as initiated by missionaries, the gradual use of modern teaching aids also started to develop in Indian classrooms. The development of audio visual aids, which was again replaced along with further development of technological devices such as multimedia like e-learning and e-learning portals. The British Indian Govt. was introduced the pro govt. policies on education such as Wood Dispatch, Hunter, Sargent, Hartog, Sadler commissions etc. The Indian Space and Satellites program was launched the many satellites like EDUSAT, CARTOSAT etc. This study is an historical study of previously existed technologies used in the learning teaching process. They are helpful to give information about educational and instructional technology that existed in the past. With the help of them we can also develop about new aids and techniques which emphasis on applying and developing the most current tools for quicker learning and easy teaching purposes.
Keywords: Education system, instructional aides, EDUSAT, CARTOSAT, teaching purposes
Water is considered as life and we owe a great deal to water for the sustenance of our lives. The importance of water for sustenance of life cannot be overemphasized. Whether it is in use of running water in our homes, rearing cattle and growing crops in our farms, or the increased uses in industry, remain immeasurable. Drinking water is a basic requirement for life and a determinant of standard of living. This paper tries to find out the sources causes and impacts in drinking water supply. The study observes those activities like sources, causes and its impact in drinking water.The study has also shown that due to naturally occurring garbage, pollution ofwater is more widespread in the area than is generally recognized. Water quality monitoring; groundwater conservation and rainwater harvesting measures have to be implemented for better provision of drinking water supply.
Keywords: Sustenance, running water, drinking water, conservation, rainwater harvesting
Wetlands are dynamic, highly productive lentic and lotic water bodies with rich biodiversity. Wetlands are among the most important ecosystems of the earth. They are valuable as sources, sinks and transformers of a number of chemical, biological and genetic materials. Wetland are sometimes described as the “kidneys of the landscape” for the functions they perform in hydrologic and chemical cycles, and as the downstream receivers of the wastes from both natural and human sources. They have been found to cleanse polluted waters, prevent floods, protect shorelines and recharge ground water aquifers. Apart from that, wetlands play major roles in the landscape by providing unique habitat for a wide variety of flora and fauna.
Water quality is the physical as well as chemical composition of water affected by natural processes and human activities. Water quality is controlled by the dissolved as well as suspended constituents. The conditions such as biological, physical, chemical factors are considered in describing the water quality. Water quality is one of the indicators of environmental degradation. In the present study, an attempt has been manage to analyse the water quality of SilsakoBeel.
The primary focus of the conservation of this lake will be towards checking of further degradation, destruction and pollution of the water. The conservation of wetland is with the vision intended to bring people close to nature and to make them understand and respect nature once again and to preserve the diverse habitat of birds, aquatic and terrestrial animals. This will also lead to creation of a green sink to absorb the CO2 emitted unscrupulously by the urban areas.The paper attempts to study the water quality of Silsako wetland with the help of primary and secondary source of data will be taken.
Keywords: Human activities , Silsako Beel , Spatio-Temporal ,Wetland,Water Quality.
The whole process of the making of Assamese nation is reflected in the songs composed and sung by Bhupen Hazarika. Bhupen Hazarika, who is honoured as the People’s Artist and living legend during his life time, understands the hopes and aspirations of the indigenous groups and communities living in the North-Eastern region of India, and the heterogeneity and distinction of the multicultural region is exquisitely expressed by this bard of Brahmaputra. Mighty river Brahmaputra is deployed by Bhupen Hazarika as a motif to present the formation of an ‘Imagined Community’ here. He compares the Brahmaputra with the Assamese nation; both flow enriching themselves in the same way with the sub-sections whether big or small. Hence, in this paper, the researcher attempts honestly to study how the process of making of a great nation and nationality is addressed by Bhupen Hazarika in his songs. Various tribes and communities who have contributed to the construction of this ‘imagined community’ and their contribution also will be studied here from multiculturalism and cultural studies approach.
Keywords: People’s artist, imagined community, culture, nation, nationality, multiculturalism, cultural studies.
Environment problem is a global as well as national issue. It is an international issue in the context of marine pollution, nuclear hazards, climate change, ozone depletion and global warming. National issues related to environment are noise pollution, deforestation, air pollution, water pollution, plastic pollution, soil pollution, solid waste pollution etc.To check the problem of environment pollution, both international and national laws are there to protect the natural environment. According to Rodgers environmental law means “the law of planetary house –keeping , protecting the planet and its people from activities that upset the earth and its life –sustaining capacities.’In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the role and importance of environmental laws in promoting river tourism in Assam.The objectives of the study are to study the role of environmental laws in promoting river tourism in Assam and examine the need of passing new laws to protect the environment of river tourism. The study is based on secondary data and information. The secondary data will be collected from environment books, newspapers, journals and internet.
Keywords: Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Plastic Pollution, Environmental Laws and River Tourism
This paper deals with gender undertones in International Relations. In doing so it deals with the traditional understanding of masculinity and relates it with particular attributes of states. It focuses on how hard power based realpolitik is based on a ‘hegemonic masculine’ institutional base. The paper also looks into the challenges to the masculine state structure which emerged in the second half of the 20th century. The latter part of the paper takes up a specific case. It analyses the election of Barack Obama as the President of the United States of America (first in 2008 and then re-elected in 2012) from a gender perspective.
Keywords: masculinity, gender, state, power, Obama
Personality is an unavoidable aspect of human life. It is related to each and every aspect of human behaviour. The identity of an individual in the society is determined by the standard of his personality development to a great extent. Personality is a very comprehensive and dynamic concept. The term personality has been defined in various ways by the psychologists. The word personality has been derived from the Latin root ‘Persona’ that was associated with Greek theatre in ancient times. In the word of Allport (1961), “Personality is the dynamic organisation within the individual of those psycho-physical systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment”.
The personality of the individual consists of certain qualities which may be termed as trait. There are different traits of personality which are developed with the influence of different factors. The development of personality is a very big issue during adolescence. Here, proper guidance is very important and that’s why we should have a clear idea about the personality traits of adolescent boys and girls. Therefore, the present paper is an attempt to make a comparative analysis between adolescent boys and girls of HS level regarding some selected traits of personality and also to give some suggestions for proper development of personality among them.
Keywords: Comparative Study, Adolescent Boys and Girls, HS level, Traits of Personality, Tihu Block
Banhi,published under the editorship of Lakshminath Bezbaroa, opened up newer horizons within the Assamese populace. Banhi was able to lead from the forefront the contemporary socio-cultural as well as literary and journalistic aspects of the Assamese populace of that time. Through Banhi Bezbaroa opened up a new avenue for healthy journalism.Through the editorials of Banhi Bezbaroa tried to portray a variety of ideas. Starting from the field of language and literature, Bezbaroa, through these editorials, tried to make a critical and analytical study of all other fields like religion, society, politics, culture, science etc. The editorials of Banhi were the results of Bezbaroa’s deep studies that were inclined towards progressive thinking. Bezbaroa also happens to be the first Assamese cartoonist. Through Banhi he created a history of cartoons in the Assamese mass media. Banhi also played a significant role in the direction of ‘Opinion Writing’. Articles on various topics were published in Banhi which were written by Bezbaroa himself and several other writers as well. Bezbaroa wrote satirical essays in Banhi which were known as ‘Kripabori’ writings. And he also included cartoons in these writings. The Letters to the Editor of Banhi also have attained a special status. Apart from all these, Banhi also included poems, essays, short-stories etc. Through all these writings and genres,Banhi has made very valuable contributions to the Assamese mass media. Banhi,therefore, is a worth mentioning magazine of the Assamese mass media.
Keywords: : Bezbaroa, Banhi, Mass Media, Editorials, Opinion.
The concept of Māyā occupies an important place in Mahapurusha Srimanta Śaṅkaradeva’s theology. In the whole corpus of works, Śaṅkaradeva’s views that Māyā is the central power of god or Puruṣa . It is known as Prakṛti. Māyā cannot be separated from God ,it is subordinate to God. Māyā appears from God and gets merged in it . Śaṅkaradeva laid emphasis on Bhakti, especially Dashya Bhakti in order to get rid of the tricks of Māyā .It is seen that Śaṅkaradeva was neither a staunch follower of Māyāvāda of Sankaracharya nor he was close to Rāmānuja, though some similarities have been observed with both the great saints.
Keywords: Śaṅkaradeva, Śaṅkarāchārya, Rāmānuja, Māyā, Puṛusa,Prakṛiti, Bhakti, Advaita, Māyāvāda , God, Brahman, J͂nāna
In the country like India, where the urban population is increasing so rapidly that the resulting problems, especially in the big metropolises and cities including Guwahati City, are reaching alarming proportion. The prevalence of social justice is very high among the affluent sections of the society. It is also necessary where the violation of constitutional or legal rights of a large number of the people including the poor, ignorant, illiteracy or socially or economically disadvantaged takes place. Further due to legislative insecurity and lack of appropriate action taken by the administration or authorities in time, people suffer from social justice in a variety ways and at the same time the people of all ladders, i.e., from the higher to the bottom socio - economic levels cannot fight equally for having social justice, when such an occasion arises. Since women are the backbone of the society and the heart of the family. But till date women are given the least recognition and respect, even their fundamental human rights and basic freedom. The status of women is a key factor for determining the development of any society. But this status is often attacked by the male counterpart through its dominance. Social crimes like rape, kidnapping, eve-teasing and indecent exposure can be grouped as crimes against women. Rape is the worst crime against women after murder and the maximum punishment under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC) is life imprisonment. The Constitution of India guarantees equality of sexes and in fact grants special favour to women. These include the right to equality that provides that every citizen is equal before the law. In this paper an attempt has been made to throw the light on the gender discrimination in access to social justice in Guwahati city, as the state govt machinery has completely failed to ensure to this group of people in the city of Guwahati both spatially and socially. The paper has been prepared on the basis of both primary and secondary data.
Keywords: : social justice, social status, social crimes, gender-discrimination
Tourism is presently one of the largest, fastest growing and highly organized industries in the world. It is highly complex phenomenon and important activity of great significance. Sustainable tourism is one of the branches of tourism which is experiencing popularity as the demand grows for the tourism that is environmentally sensitive, informative and beneficial for local communities. Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of present without comprising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (UNEP-1987). Sibsagar is well known for its Ahom palaces and monuments. Sibsagar is probably one of the best example in the country of destination that built sustainable tourism promotion and product development program form practically a zero base. Recognizing the necessity to educate communities about sustainable tourism. Sustainable development is the guiding spirit of the new tourism policy. The objective of sustainable tourism development is to implement all areas of Sustainable development (ecological, economy, social issues, and cultural issues) in tourism.
Keywords: Sustainable, Tourism, Promotion, Archaeological remains.
This study mainly investigates about the workers problem associated with human relations study. It is also a major concern of workers morale for affectivity of an organization. For industrial productivity there should be relation between workers morale and productivity. In this regard job-satisfaction factors tend to be motivated employees to perform their work which increases employee’s performance and it decreases absenteeism in two organizations of Namrup, Assam. In this research, we have taken two organizations viz; Assam Petro-Chemicals Limited(APL),and Namrup Thermal Power Station(NTPS)which are affected by absenteeism problem to a great extent. Thus in this study the main objective is to how workers morale affect working attitude of the workers of two organizations of Namrup and it lead absenteeism problem.
Keywords: Workers morale, absenteeism, Namrup,APL,NTPS.
Historical plays in Assamese literature became more popular after the decline of the Mythological period. In Assamese Literature Historical plays are very popular and get important position in Assamese literature. In Jonaki Era of Assamese Literature, Lakshminath Bezbarua is one of the prominent play writers and his historical play Joymati Konwari is one of the great works of Assamese literature, which depict the period of revolution, sacrifice and beginning of the ruin of the Ahom period. Joymati Konwari Shows the sacrifice of Ahom woman for her country and also Shakespearean influence in it.
Keywords: Gadapani, Historical, Lakshminath Bezbarua , Literature, Sacrifice.
The North-eastern region of India is indeed an undiscovered paradise in the country. The N.E. region has issues and challenges in front for which it is devoid of the deserved exposure and priority. The contemporary issues prevailing in the region are critical and needs to be focused upon so as to sort out the differences. It is in no way lesser than any other region whether it be in resources or serene beauty. In fact it is a full bunch of assets for the country as it enhances some of the export industries as well as it is rich in varied cultural traditions with varied lifestyles and varied cuisines to offer as attractions for tourists. It initiates a whole lot of facets to look up to and induces innovate new ideas for better presentation of the region. One of the major issues for the region is its weak link or connectivity with the centre for which it has been suffering since ages. Its resources could not be optimally used and lacks the priority. There are even rumor sourced presumptions about the region for its distorted connectivity. The study here makes a research on how’s and whys for the backlogs and tries to peep on to the positivity to bring a revolution and give the region its desired and deserved attention and esteem.
Keywords: Cultural traditions, Northeast region , potential ,Varied Cuisines, Dzukou Flower Valley.
Dibrugarh town situated at the Eastern part of Assam and southern bank of the river Brahmaputra. It is an industrial town surrounded by sprawling tea estates in Assam, northeast India. Road traffic congestion is a problematic condition on the road transport which is slowing down the normal speed of the vehicles, time consuming and vehicular queuing. Like other city Dibrugarh town also facing this problem. Recently opened two bridges i.e. Dhola Sadiya and Bogibil also fuel up the road traffic congestion. Dibrugarh is old commercial, administration and medical town where comes the people from all around the north east India as well as other parts of the country. This traffic congestion problem arises frequently at a particular time and spot of the town. Basically at the time of school and college or in a market hour roads are congestion by traffic. Major traffic congestion points are Thana Chariali, Chowkidingee , Phool Bagan, Medical Tinali, Amolapatty, Paltanbazar etc. and major traffic congestion road are KC Gogoi Path, Mancotta Road, RKB path, Rotary Road, AT Road from Dibrugarh University to Seujpur Tinali, Babul Poddar Path, HS road, New Market road, Cole road, AMC road etc. The reflected major reason behind this problem are inflow of large number of people, modernized lifestyle, congested ted road, disobey traffic rules, improper parking system, lack of passenger vehicle stand, road side construction, unplanned establishment of DMB dustbins etc. For traffic congestion people of Dibrugarh as well as other people who were came for different activities facing some problem such as delay in working place, cost and time consuming, air and sound pollution, increasing volatility in emergency services etc. Government and their authority should take some action and planning for resolve this increasing problem.
Keywords: Dibrugarh town , Road traffic congestion, causes, problems and resolve.
Politics and art are often regarded as two separate even autonomous sphere of human life. But the relations and mutual interaction between the two is hard to overlook. Indeed the reciprocal interaction between art and politics gives new impetus to our societal life. It happens because both artist and politician play a leading role in their respective society. Both try to capture the mind of the people and thereby dominate the public sphere. An Artist, who works for the people tends to depict a picture of the future through his/her creative activities. He/she shows his concern for the prevailing situation. If an artist nurtures a political goal of his own, then he/she will try to enter into the political field. He will make every attempt to fulfill his goal taking help of his creative and artistic potentialities. Whatever the result might be; the role of the artist as a political leader becomes the centre of attraction. Bhupen Hazarika, the Indian lyricist, musician, singer, poet and film-maker and political leader from Assam, played a significant role in the contemporary politics of Assam. Although he was an artist and a great cultural figure of Assam as well as India, but his political role can’t be underestimated. He had a clear political vision too. It can be analyzed in term of his politics and ideology.
Keywords: Politics, Culture, Ideology, Political Vision .
The thoughts and ideas of Mahatma Gandhi called Gandhism have spread throughout the world since they were first evolved by the Mahatma Gandhi. Based on the noble and sustainable ideas of love, brotherhood, truth, non-violence and welfare of all, his thoughts along with the path devised by him for realizing them have gained administration and popularity in many parts of the world. Gandhiji was against racism, against colonialism, against the caste system, against economic exploitation, against the degradation of women, against religious and ethinic supremacy and stood for democratic participation. Now in present time often a question has been raised, ‘Is Gandhism relevant today ?’ The answer is – Gandhism is now more and more relevant in the contemporary world which has now faced many problems. His moral and ethical values have great relevance today in solving many social, political, economic issues.
Keywords: Gandhism, relevance, moral-ethical values, contemporary world.
The meaning of human security is not similar with that of traditional notion of security. The concept of security can be traced back to the end of cold war. At that time security is understand in term’s of nation’s security. The concept of human security for the first time expressed in words of Mahbub Ul Haq. “Human Security s not only concern with weapons .It is concern with human dignity .The basic objective of this study is to analyse the human security provision among the tea garden women workers of Jorhat district .The women tea garden workers are the integral labour force of tea industry. The scope of the study limited to two tea garden of Jorhat district.
Keywords: Human Security, Human development, State Security.
Hinduism is the oldest of all the living religions. It has neither any definite date of its origin nor has it any definite founder associated with it. It is called Sanatana Dharma, a religion coming down to people through eternity. An enormous corpus of sacred literature is also associated with Hinduism, but none can claim exclusive authority. The several religious texts of Hinduism are- the Vedas, the Upanishads, the purānas, the Rāmāyana, the Mahabharata and the Bhagavadgita etc. Of these Vedas are the oldest and they are regarded as beginning less by Hindu tradition. Varying beliefs and practices can be found amongst these who call themselves Hindus. A polytheist is as much a Hindu, as a monotheist or a monist or even a atheist. Everyone has got the right to follow his own path and approach God in his own way. Hinduism is very liberal and broad hearted in its approach and outlook. Hinduism is not only a religion, but a social system and a tradition too. Traditionally, only he has been able to be a Hindu who has belonged to any of the four Varnas present in Hindu social system.
Keywords: Bhagavadgita , Hinduism, Religion, Upanishads ,Veda.
Religion plays an important role in the socio-cultural life of every individual or group of individuals. Religion is the origin of rites and rituals; meaning the system of faith and worship shapes one’s culture in one way or another. Rites and rituals are most important practices of human culture. They are the expression of manner and type of adjustment effected by people with their concept of supernatural. The Khamtis are a group of tribes living mainly in the Namsai district and its adjoining Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh and Lakhimpur district of Assam, most of them professing Buddhism as their religion. Different communities living in North-East India have rich tradition of culture and religion. Among them the Khamtis of North-East India are keeping alive a great Buddhist tradition of Theravada Buddhism. The Khamtis belongs to the Theravada faith of Buddhism who have regular establishment of priest who are well versed in the recondite mysteries of their religion; and a large proportion of the laity can read and write in their own language, having a separate script of their own. This paper tries to highlight the influence of Buddhist Philosophy upon the Khamtis as well as their religious practises based on the essence of Theravada Buddhism in true spirit. This paper aims to present an explanatory analysis based mostly on secondary data, some of them corroborated by primary data collected by the present researcher in consultation with his supervisor.
Keywords: Theravada Buddhism, Monastery, Buddhist monk, Philosophy, Buddha
Access to safe, easy and affordable credit and other financial services by the poor and vulnerable groups, disadvantaged areas and lagging sectors is recognized as a pre-condition for accelerating growth and reducing income disparities and poverty. In India, it is disheartening to note that after forty four years of social responsibility on the Indian scheduled commercial banks and the enactment of the Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) Act in the mid 1970s, there has been a significant expansion both in the geographical as well as functional reach of the commercial banks, regional rural banks and co-operative credit institutions, without making serious inroads into rural business and the improved access of rural communities to financial services. Over the past few years, Reserve Bank of India (RBI), as also other policy makers have pursued the agenda of financial inclusion and achieved discernible progress in improving access to financial services for the masses. However, the progress is far from satisfactory. While few regions have witnessed considerable progress in respect of access to finance for the excluded sections, the North-East, Eastern and Central regions continue to lag behind in respect of penetration by the banking system. This paper makes an attempt to look into the status of bank penetration in Assam in general and Bongaigaon district in particular.
Keywords: Financial inclusion, Bank penetration, Credit-Deposit ratio.
Vivekananda was a staunch advaitin as he himself declared that Advaita was the fairest flower of philosophy and religion. At the same time he never said that advaita alone was Vedanta. His philosophy which came to be known as practical Vedanta or NeoVedantaism ,was based on his vast knowledge of Upanishads , Vedas and western philosophy ,his experience of world tour, his love for motherland and above all his guru Ramakrishna Paramhansa whom he considered as the living Vedanta and last but not least his own realisation. Vivekananda was the only great saint who has utilised the life giving message of Vedanta for the regeneration of India and establishment of universal religion. He made Vedanta the property of common people to uplift them spiritually and helped them to sustain during the course of struggle of life.To realised the ultimate truth ,Vivekananda harmonised the four paths-J͂nāna, Bhakti , Karma and Rajayoga
Keywords: Vivekananda, Ramakrishana Paramhansa, Śaṅkarāchārya, Rāmānuja, Māyā,, Bhakti, Advaita, Māyāvāda , God, Brahman, J͂nāna
From time immemorial, in a variety of cultures of different countries, people have organized themselves at the grass root level of find innovative solutions to specific problems. Organizing at the local level is a form of collective advocacy on behalf of a shared cause or direction action in the service of achieving a collective goal. As Baltiwala (1994) stated “In gross roots programs and policy debates, empowerment has virtually replaced terms such as welfare, upliftment, community development and intervention”. In recent years the group approach for poverty alleviation has been gaining recognition in the Asian countries. Mostly women are mobilized into groups for undertaking mutually beneficial social and economic activities. The group provides the women a base for self-employment and empowerment through group dynamics. In India, these mutual help based groups are known as self help groups (SHGs). The fundamental basis of the self help group exists prior to any external intervention. A common bond like caste affiliation, place of residence, need and interest, community links individual. A development functionary must have the experience to identify these common bonds which are commonly called “natural affinities”.
Keywords: Financial risk , Self help group, Socio-economic status, Economic Empowerment, Income.
Environment is our surrounding that includes living and non-living things around us. In broad sense, environment consists of the sum total of the stimulation that the individual receives from conception until death. It covers all those circumstances which assert their influence on the individual since conception to death. Whatever found around the individualmay be covered by the term environment. Environment also consists of physical, intellectual, social, moral, economic, political and cultural forces and these forces influence the activities, behaviour and personality of the individual. Various kinds of environment are physical environment, social environment, biotic environment, intellectual environment, emotional environment.
Keywords: Environmental Awareness, College Students, Kaliabor, Sustainable Development, Environmental Protection.
The tribe inhabiting the Longding district of Arunachal Pradesh is known as “Wancho”. Wildlife hunting is an age old practice of the “Wanchos “. Wancho tribes have been hunting wildlife for many generations. Hunting is a traditional way of life of wanchos though hunting and trapping practice find its way in the life of many tribal communities of Arunachal Pradesh. Hunters do not follow a fixed hunting schedule but hunts when convenient, although some hunting trips carried out for cultural or ritualistic reason may follow a schedule. For e.g during village festivals and functions. Hunting is an important part of their culture and hunters have a high social status. For example one can see even today among the wancho how hunters take pride and honor in decorating their houses with the skull of the hunted animals and birds. It signifies the sign of achievement. Hunting plays an important role in the socio and cultural life of the Wanchos. This indigenous people hunt wild life not just for food and leisure but for large socio-cultural link adhered to their social life.. To cite the example, hornbill feather plays a great role in the socio cultural life of the Wanchos. Hornbill feather represent the social status of the individual. The number of hornbill feather used in the headgear of this indigenous people represents the symbol of position, status and power. This tradition use of hornbill feather has proved to be fatal. Now this hornbill bird has been totally extinct from the region because of mass killing and hunting of this bird.
Woman passed through many problems, obstacles and barriers to become an important member in the society .In the Past , woman did not have any kind of rights ,she was isolated ,neglected and mistreated by man. By the coming of Feminism ,the profile and the image women have changed completely and form being a poppet in the hands of man .she becomes a Queen, President ,Artist and Teacher etc.
This research paper examines the wishes , dreams and the ability of woman to change her position in the duties .This research produces a number of key findings; recent research and statistics that confirm a significant development of woman participation in different fields such as economic growth ,culture upheavals in addition to the political and social structures.
The main conclusion drawn from this research is that the Feminist efforts were efficient in many ways in which they brought a huge change in the position and the role of woman .they were able to remove the majority if not all the stereotypical pictures and to give her more importance in the society by giving her the political, social and economical rights.
Keywords: Feminist Movement , Waves of Feminism, Forms of Feminism ,Role of Activists and Equal rights for Women .
Over the recent decades the increasing number of migration flows has exerted and continues to exert great pressure on the health system and on the welfare structures of Greece. The bases for the development of a rudimentary reception and integration system that still is in progress have long been delayed, while there has been no happy medium, between the enormous pressure that foreigner users of this system put on, and the humanitarian obligation of a well-governed state towards all residents of the country. The purpose of this article is to capture this situation within the changes that take place due to it, inside the Greek society where there is a great need for professional social workers who are able to work targeted and effectively with foreigners, both children and adults, who have or develop mental health problems for the very first time.
Keywords: Mental Health, Multicultural Social work practice, Cultural identity, Children and Adolescents.
Mass media is mirror of a society for reflecting education, information and entertainment. Challenges of mass media are changing in this mechanical world. Nowadays challenges of mass media refer to political setup, social needs, economic limitation and identity of social elements. Objectives of this paper are to studystatus of mass media regarding disseminating information to persons with disabilities in Assam, to study real scenario of media houses towards social inclusion of persons with disabilities in Assam.
Study area: Assam; Methodology: I have applied qualitative study method and field study method for writing this paper.Major findings: The people with disabilities of Assam are lacking of information due to certain limitation of communication skills. The mass media has scope to overcome its challenges for greater interest of the persons with disabilities in Assam. The media houses may promote Braille, sign language and modern technology for disseminating information for the same.
Keywords: Assam, Mass media, disabilities, information, in-house
The resistance movement led by surendra sai of sambalpur against british imperialism is a landmark in the history of freedom struggle of odisha. Surendra sai popularly known as surendra, was born in the chauhan family of Rajpur Khinda 1 . He is remembered for his courage in resisting the exploitation of British rule and their injustice. He is one of the valiant sons of the soil who sacrificed his life fighting against the British and died in obscure. He not only started a policatal revolution by taking effective steps to improve the social and economic status of the people of lower classes. Surendra Sai Symbolizes unity between tribal and non-tribal culture.2